The European Union’s new environmental rules on marine fuels, which entered into force 17 December, will substantially reduce air pollution and its impacts on human health. According to Norwegian classification society Det Norske Veritas (DNV), liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled propulsion has been shown to meet the strictest emissions control regulations, in addition to being technically feasible and cost-effective, and is therefore well positioned to assume an increasing market share.
Air pollutants from maritime shipping are transported over long distances and as a result contribute increasingly to the air quality problems in many European cities. Without any action, sulphur emissions from shipping in EU sea areas would exceed those from all land-based sources by 2020. The revised legislation will put an end to this trend reducing not only sulphur emissions but more importantly particulate matter, marking a clear step forward in protection of people’s health and the environment.
DNV says that by using LNG, NOx emissions are reduced by 85–90%, SOx and particles by close to 100%, and net GHG emissions by 15–20%.
European Commission Vice-President Siim Kallas said: “Europe is now on track to implement the commitments unanimously taken by its Member States in the IMO back in 2008. We are also aware of the compliance costs affecting the industry which we are seeking to minimize through the framework of the “Sustainable Waterborne Transport Toolbox” presented in September 2011.”
Environment Commissioner Janez Potočnik said: “Improving air quality is a long-standing environmental challenge. It has taken some time but now the maritime sector is engaged. The big winners are the European citizens who will breathe cleaner air and enjoy a healthier life and industry supplying clean fuels and technology.”
The Directive is guided by standards developed at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). It progressively reduces the maximum sulphur content of marine fuels from the current 3.5% to 0.5% by January 2020. In some very fragile ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea and the North Sea including the English Channel, the maximum sulphur content will be reduced to 0.1%, already in 2015.
As an alternative to low sulphur fuels, ships can opt for equivalent compliance methods such as exhaust gas cleaning systems or LNG-powered ships. Current EU transport funding instruments, such as TEN-T and Marco Polo Programmes, as well as the European Investment Bank (EIB) give financial support to green maritime-based projects. Furthermore, the Commission has launched activities that encourage the use of marine LNG as ship fuel. It will also continue to implement medium- and long-term measures to promote green ship technology, alternative fuels and the development of green transport infrastructure in the context of the Sustainable Waterborne Transport Toolbox, jointly with industry and Member States.
By 18 June 2014 at the latest, Member States will have to amend their existing legislation on the quality of marine fuels to align it with the new Directive. The Directive provides legal certainty for the required investments by ship owners, port operators and refineries.
From 2015 onwards, Member States are asked to ensure that ships use fuels with a sulphur content of not more than 0.10% in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea including the English Channel. Equivalent compliance methods, such as exhaust cleaning systems, are accepted.
From 2020 onwards, ships operating on all other European Sea areas will have to use fuels with sulphur content below 0.50%.
Ships traditionally use heavy fuel oils for propulsion. Heavy fuel oils can have a sulphur content of up to 5 %. In comparison, the sulphur content of fuels used in trucks or passenger cars must not exceed 0.001 %.
Sulphur dioxide emissions cause acid rain and generate fine dust. This dust is dangerous for human health, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and reducing life expectancy in the EU by up to two years.
(This article primarily compiled using information from a Europa press release)